What to know about Dyslexia


Dyslexia is a learning disorder that affects the brain’s ability to process language. It is estimated that 1 in 5 people have dyslexia to some degree, making it a common condition. People with dyslexia may have difficulty with decoding, fluency, and comprehension. Dyslexia is not related to intelligence and can affect people of all ages and backgrounds.

It is estimated that 10-20% of the population has dyslexia, making it one of the most common learning disabilities. Dyslexia is often identified in childhood, but can also be diagnosed in adulthood.

Dyslexia is a lifelong condition, but with the right support, individuals with dyslexia can learn to manage their difficulties and develop strategies to overcome their challenges. Early identification and intervention are important in helping individuals with dyslexia succeed in school and in their personal and professional lives.

Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental condition that is present from birth and is usually inherited genetically. Current research suggests that dyslexia is caused by differences in brain structure and function that affect the way the brain processes written and spoken language.

There is no known way to prevent dyslexia, but early identification and intervention can help to mitigate its effects and enable individuals to achieve their full potential.

Again, it is important to remember that dyslexia is not related to intelligence, and individuals with dyslexia can be highly successful in a variety of fields.

 Signs of Dyslexia in Children

Signs of dyslexia in children can vary depending on their age, but some common indicators include:

  • Experiencing difficulty when learning nursery rhymes, playing rhyming games and forming words correctly.
  • Difficulty paying attention, sitting still or listening to stories.
  • Difficulty with phonemic awareness (recognizing and working with sounds in spoken language)
  • Difficulty with letter and word recognition
  • Struggles with decoding (translating written words into spoken words)
  • Difficulty with spelling and written expression
  • Slow reading speed and fluency
  • Difficulty with comprehension and following instructions
  • Poor memory recall
  • Difficulty with math and sequencing
  • Makes anagrams of words; for example, tired instead of tried, bread for beard.
  • Poor concentration
  • Problems remembering the sequence of things.
  • Avoiding activities that involve reading
  • Uses work avoidance tactics, such as sharpening pencils and looking for books.
  • Excessively tired due to the amount of concentration and effort required.
  • Poor grades in many classes.

It is important to note that not all children with dyslexia will exhibit all of these signs, and that each child’s experience may be different.

 Signs of Dyslexia in Adults

Dyslexia is often diagnosed in childhood, but it can also go undiagnosed until adulthood. Some signs of dyslexia in adults may include:

  • Difficulty with reading and spelling
  • Slow reading speed
  • Difficulty with word retrieval and using proper grammar
  • Difficulty with time management and organization
  • Difficulty with written expression and completing written tasks
  • Difficulty with following written instructions
  • Difficulty with job performance or academic achievement
  • Confused by the difference between left and right, up and down, east and west.
  • Appears to know more than they can commit to paper.
  • Finds holding a list of instructions in memory difficult, although can perform all tasks when told individually.
  • Dreads writing memos or letters.
  • Experiencing difficulty when trying to summarize a story, learning a foreign language or memorizing.
  • Finds tasks difficult to complete on time.
  • Confuses upper- and lower-case letters.

Adults with dyslexia may have developed coping strategies or learned to work around their difficulties, so their experience may not be as obvious as it is in children.

Recommendations for Schools to Help Children with Dyslexia

It is important for schools to provide support and accommodations for students with dyslexia to ensure their success. Some recommendations include:

  • Schools can support students with dyslexia in a number of ways, including:
  • Early screening for dyslexia and other learning disabilities
  • Providing dyslexia-friendly instruction, such as using multisensory teaching methods and explicit instruction in phonics
  • Providing accommodations, such as extended time for tests and assignments and assistive technology
  • Individualized Education Plans (IEPs): Schools can create individualized education plans (IEPs) for students with dyslexia to provide customized support and accommodations to meet their unique learning needs.
  • Educating teachers and staff on dyslexia and other learning disabilities
  • Encouraging a positive and supportive environment that celebrates the strengths and talents of all students

Recommendations for Parents to Help Children with Dyslexia

Parents can play a key role in supporting their children with dyslexia. Some recommendations include:

  • Educating themselves on dyslexia and how to best support their child
  • Advocating for their child’s needs and accommodations at school
  • Providing positive reinforcement and building self-esteem
  • Encouraging their child’s interests and strengths
  • Providing opportunities for one-on-one reading and writing practice
  • Seeking outside support and resources (such as tutoring or therapy)
  • Encouraging their child’s strengths and interests outside of school
  • Communicating openly with their child about dyslexia and the challenges they may face

Supporting Workers with Dyslexia in the Workplace

Dyslexia can affect adults in the workplace as well. Some common signs and symptoms of dyslexia in adults in the workplace include:

  • Difficulty reading written material, such as emails, reports, and presentations
  • Struggling to take notes during meetings
  • Difficulty with spelling, grammar, and punctuation
  • Struggles with remembering verbal instructions
  • Difficulty with time management and organization

 Individuals with dyslexia can face challenges in the workplace, but there are ways to provide support and accommodations to ensure their success. Some recommendations include:

  • Offering assistive technology such as text-to-speech software or speech recognition software
  • Providing accommodations such as extended time on tasks or a quiet work space
  • Encouraging open communication and collaboration with coworkers and supervisors
  • Providing training and resources on dyslexia awareness and accommodations
  • Emphasizing and utilizing the individual’s strengths and abilities
  • Providing written materials in dyslexia-friendly formats, such as using larger fonts, clear spacing, and dyslexia-friendly fonts like OpenDyslexic or Dyslexie
  • Providing additional time for reading and writing tasks
  • Encouraging employees with dyslexia to communicate their needs and accommodations

The Positive Side of Dyslexia

While dyslexia can present challenges, it is important to recognize the positive aspects of this unique way of thinking. Some examples of successful individuals with dyslexia include:

Dentaa Amoateng MBE, Fouder of GUBA

Arch. Duncan-Williams, overseer- Action Chapel International 

Okyeame Kwame, Musical artist

Nana Anash Kwao IV, Chief of Akwamu Adumasa and Radio Journalist

Rosalin Abigail Kyere-Nartey, Founder Africa Dyslexia Organisation

Joy Thomas, Founder of Dyslexia Ghana

Richard Branson, Entrepreneur and Founder of the Virgin Group

Keira Knightley, Actress

Lewis Hamilton, Formula One driver

Steven Spielberg, Film Director

Whoopi Goldberg, Actress and talk show host

Magic Johnson, a former professional basketball player

Tim Tebow, former professional football player and current baseball player

Albert Einstein, a theoretical physicist

Leonardo da Vinci,  artist and inventor

Thomas Edison, inventor

Winston Churchill, former British Prime Minister

Pablo Picasso, artist

Will Smith, actor

Walt Disney, animator and founder of The Walt Disney Company

Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone

Dyslexia can pose challenges in reading, writing, and spelling, it’s important to recognize that individuals with dyslexia often have unique strengths and abilities that should be celebrated. Some of the positive aspects of dyslexia include:


Creativity: Many individuals with dyslexia are highly creative and have a unique way of looking at the world. They may be gifted in art, music, or other creative fields.

 Problem-solving skills: People with dyslexia often have strong problem-solving skills and can think outside the box to come up with innovative solutions to challenges.

Strong interpersonal skills: Many individuals with dyslexia have strong interpersonal skills and are highly empathetic. They may be great at reading body language and picking up on subtle social cues.

Resilience: People with dyslexia have to work harder than most to read and write, which can help them develop resilience and perseverance. This can be a valuable asset in many areas of life.

Out-of-the-box thinking: Dyslexic individuals often have a unique perspective on the world, which can lead to innovative, creative thinking and the ability to see the big picture

It’s important to recognize that dyslexia is not a weakness or a disadvantage. While it may pose challenges in some areas, individuals with dyslexia often have many strengths and abilities that should be celebrated and nurtured.


Dyslexia is a complex learning disorder that affects individuals in different ways. While it can present significant challenges, dyslexia also brings unique strengths and talents. With the right support and accommodations, individuals with dyslexia can achieve success in school, the workplace, and their personal lives. It is important for schools, parents, and employers to understand dyslexia and work to create supportive environments that allow individuals with dyslexia to reach their full potential.


This is not true because many young children learning how to read and write reverse letters a lot of times. Moreover, a child can be dyslexic and not reverse letters. Children with dyslexia have a language-processing deficit, connecting speech sounds with written letters or groups of letters, resulting in difficulty with reading and writing.

Dyslexia is a long-life condition. Early intervention and support is very important because it makes their journey successful. In addition, even though dyslexics learn to read accurately, they may continue to read slowly.

Dyslexics are not lazy because their brains work five times harder when compared to others, which can result in frustration.

Many dyslexic people are gifted and are at the tops of their fields. Good examples include Albert Einstein, Richard Branson, Leonardo da Vinci, Walt Disney, Whoopi Goldberg and George Bush. Moreover, according to the International Dyslexia Organization, individuals with Dyslexia have average to above average intelligence.

There are as many girls as boys with Dyslexia.

These are some people with Dyslexia.


Dentaa Amoateng, MBE


Leonardo Da'vinci


Duncan Williams


Rosalin A. Kyere-Nartey

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The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) is a screening tool designed to measure risk of reading disability (i.e. dyslexia) in adults (Lefly & Pennington, 2000), but it can also help measure risk in children, especially before school age. Reading disability is highly heritable: about 30-60% percent of children born to a dyslexic parent will develop dyslexia. Thus, one way to estimate risk of reading disability in preschool children is to evaluate parents’ own reading history. The following questionnaire was developed using parents’ reports of their own reading history as well as actual testing of their children’s reading skills. If a parent scores high on the ARHQ, their child has a higher risk of developing a reading disability. It is important to note that the ARHQ is only a screener and does not constitute a formal evaluation or diagnosis of either the parent or the child. If you have concerns about your child’s reading progress, we recommend that you contact your child’s school, a licensed child psychologist, or your child’s primary care physician about pursuing a more thorough evaluation to investigate the nature of these concerns.

The Colorado Learning Disabilities Questionnaire – Reading Subscale (CLDQ-R) is a screening tool designed to measure risk of reading disability (i.e. dyslexia) in school-age children (Willcutt, Boada, Riddle, Chhabildas, DeFries & Pennington, 2011). Normative scores for this questionnaire were developed based on parent-reports of their 6-18 year-old children, as well as actual reading testing of these children. Willcutt, et al. (2011) found that the CLDQ-R is reliable and valid. It is important to note that the CLDQ-R is only a screener and does not constitute a formal evaluation or diagnosis. If you have concerns about your child’s reading progress, we recommend that you contact your child’s school, a licensed child psychologist, or your child’s primary care physician about pursuing a more thorough evaluation to investigate the nature of these concerns. For more information about the symptoms, causes and treatment of reading disability (dyslexia), please visit the International Dyslexia Association


The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) is a self-report screening tool designed to measure risk of reading disability (i.e. dyslexia) in adults (Lefly & Pennington, 2000). The ARHQ asks adults about their own reading history and current reading habits in order to estimate the risk that they may have a reading disability. Normative scores are based on actual testing, and Lefly & Pennington (2000) found that the ARHQ is reliable and valid. It is important to note that the ARHQ is only a screener and does not constitute a formal evaluation or diagnosis. If you have concerns about your reading skills, we recommend that you contact a licensed psychologist or your primary care physician about pursuing a more thorough evaluation to investigate the nature of these concerns.